Solar modules, also known as photovoltaic modules or PV modules, are used to generate electricity from sunlight. The PV modules are components of solar systems and convert the energy radiation of sunlight into electrical energy. Photoelectric effects in chemical elements or compounds are used for this purpose. Here the direct current is converted into alternating current (photoelectric effect).
The term photovoltaic is derived from the Greek word for "light" (phos or photos) and from volt (according to Alessandro Volta), the unit for the electrical voltage.
The first application was a NASA awning. Since 1958, photovoltaic energy has been used to supply most spacecraft. The US space satellite Vanguard 1 was the first satellite to have a solar panel equipped with 108 silicon solar cells.
A distinction is made between crystalline (monocrystalline and polycrystalline) PV modules and thin-film PV modules. The semiconductor material for crystalline solar cells is silicon. Thin film cells are coated with a carrier material (amorphous silicon cells, gallium arsenide (GaAs), cadmium telluride (CdTe) copper indium selenide etc.). Thin-film cells therefore require very little raw material.
Source: Wikipedia, SolarServer, photovoltaik.one
electricity-producing layer of solar cells, the structure of solar modules must
also take into account stability and corrosion protection.